The similarities between SPS and TBT Agreement
The Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) Agreement and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement are two separate World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements. Both agreements aim to reduce technical barriers to trade, which can come in many forms, such as regulations, standards, testing and certification procedures. While these two agreements have different objectives, there are similarities between them.
First, both agreements are based on the principle of non-discrimination. This means that WTO member countries must apply their SPS and TBT regulations and standards consistently to all trading partners. They can’t impose more stringent measures on some countries than others, for example.
Second, both agreements require transparency. Member countries must inform their trading partners of any new SPS or TBT measures that they plan to implement. This allows other countries to assess the impact of the measures and provide comments or feedback before they are implemented. This also helps to ensure that measures are not used as a disguised form of protectionism.
Third, both agreements allow for the use of international standards. The SPS Agreement recognizes the standards set by international organizations such as the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The TBT Agreement recognizes the standards set by organizations such as the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electro-technical Commission (IEC). The use of international standards promotes consistency and helps to minimize technical barriers to trade.
Fourth, both agreements allow for the use of science-based measures. The SPS Agreement recognizes that SPS measures must be based on scientific evidence and conducted in a transparent manner. The TBT Agreement allows for the use of scientific and technical information in the development of technical regulations.
Finally, both agreements provide dispute settlement mechanisms. If a country believes that another country’s SPS or TBT measures are not consistent with the agreements, they can bring a dispute to the WTO’s dispute settlement body. The goal of the dispute settlement process is to resolve the issue and ensure compliance with the agreements.
In summary, the SPS and TBT Agreements share several similarities, including non-discrimination, transparency, the use of international standards, science-based measures, and dispute settlement mechanisms. These commonalities help to promote consistency and reduce technical barriers to trade, ultimately benefiting both consumers and producers worldwide.